The soil moisture is expressed as the volume of water contained within soils. Soil moisture can influence levels of vegetation water stress and flood risk.
Soil acidity is expressed using pH scale. pH values lower than 7 indicate acidic soils and pH values higher than 7 indicate alkaline soils. Soil acidity influences species abundance, distributions and productivity.
Soil can be classified into textural classes including loams, clays, and sands. Textural composition influences water holding capacity and dynamics and vegetation stress levels.